Saturday, April 2, 2011

Archaeological Heritage Harappa and Moenjodaro

Harappa in Sahiwal district (Punjab) and Moenjodaro in Larkana (sind) have been excavated in recent times. Their discovery has created a great stir in the world of scholarship. It has given a great impetus to excavation and research. The excavations of Harappa and Moenjodaro have really exposed to modern man the early efforts of human society in organising its social, cultural and political life. The finds at these sites confirm that some five thousand years ago, particular civilization flowered in the Indus valley, which is particularly known as the Indus valley civilization.
The principal remains at Harappa include the citadel, the scattered general city, the granary, the cemetery. The big finds at Moenjodaro consisted of the rampart wall, the citadel, the stupa, the great bath, the great granary and the main drain. The general remains found at the sites consist of seals, statues, house-hold articles, weapons, skeletons of domesticated animals, pictorial writings. It is said that it was destroyed successively and rebuilt no less than seven times. However, today it stands as the most spectacular of all the excavated cities of the Indus valley. At its glory, it was a beautiful city with fine rows of brick houses, pillared, halls, baths, markets, lanes, streets and public places. Almost every house had wells, drains and bathrooms.
Harappa and Moenjodaro were situated about 400 miles apart. Both were great centres of commerce, trade and industry. Communications by the river Indus provided a natural highway between that two capital cities of the Indus valley civilization. We find wonderful similarity in their relics. We find the same rigidity of rules, the same weights and measures, the same system of writing, the same rituals and practices and the same materials of daily use.

          Their general lay-outs show that they were fine cities. It reveals that their inhabitants were highly cultured and civilized people. The brick built houses, lanes, streets, market places and public baths demonstrate the skill of their builders in architecture, engineering and town-planning.
          The inhabitants of these cities were said to have brown complexion, curly black hair, thick lips and flat hollowed cheeks. They used cotton fabrics and warm textiles.  Both men and women wore some ornaments made of gold, silver, ivory, copper and precious stones. The most popular ornaments in use were necklaces, armlets, finger rings and bangles. There was a great variety in the shape and design of ornaments. Some of them were of singular beauty. They used untensils of different size and shape with beautiful paintings on them and followed many professions which included farming, pottery, weaving, carpentry, masonry, metal work (gold, silver, copper, iron, bronze etc.), stone cutting and sculpturing. They had a well regulated life under a social and economic system and had trade relations with communities living in the east and the west. They usually worshipped the mother goddess and a male deity. They also worshipped stones, trees and animals.
          Wheat was the principal article of food. But barley and palm-dates were also familiar. They also used mutton, pork, fish and eggs. They cultivated wheat, barley and cotton, husbanded cattle and used the raw material for producing finished goods. They built granaries for storing grains and kept them clean and free of moisture. The kilns located outside the residential sector of the town were used for burning the bricks and the beautiful clay-pottery.

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